Limbwalker's Online Tree Identification Resource

Tree Finder Index

Click on photographs to enlarge and obtain additional information about each tree species.

Maple Family (Aceraceae)

Red Maple (Acer rubrum)

(also known as Swamp Maple, Scarlet Maple)
Native to Vermont.  Large tree with narrow or rounded, compact crown and red flowers, fruit, leafstalks and autumn foliage.  Found in wet or moist soils of stream banks, valleys, swamps, and uplands and sometimes in dry ridges; in mixed hardwood forests.  It has the greatest north-south distribution of all tree species along the East Coast.

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)

(also known as Hard Maple, Rock Maple)
Native to Vermont.  Large tree with rounded, dense crown and striking, multicolored foliage in autumn.  Found in moist soils of uplands and valleys, sometimes in pure stands.

Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum)

(also known as Soft Maple, River Maple, White Maple)
Native to Vermont.  Large tree with a short, stout trunk, few large forks, spreading, open irregular crown of long curving branches, and graceful cut-leaves.  Found in wet soils of stream banks, floodplains and swamps; with other hardwoods.

Boxelder (Acer negundo)

(also known as Ash-Leaved Maple, Manitoba Maple)
Naturalized in Vermont.  Small to medium-sized tree with a short trunk and a broad, rounded crown of light green foliage.  Found in wet or moist soils along stream banks and in valleys with various hardwoods.

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)

Introduced.  Grows rapidly and thrives in a variety of conditions.  Planted as a street and shade tree, but because of it’s rapid growth and escape into the wild, it is considered a threat to native flora and fauna.  Further planting is discouraged.

Birch Family (Betulaceae)

Birches (Betula)

Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

(also known as Canoe Birch, White Birch)
Native to Vermont.  Narrow, open crown of slightly drooping to nearly horizontal branches, sometimes a shrub.  Bark separates into papery strips to reveal orange inner bark.

River Birch (Betula nigra)

(also known as Red Birch, Black Birch)
Not native to Vermont.  Often slightly leaning, forked tree with irregular spreading crown.  Found in wet soil of stream banks, lakes, swamps, and flood plains; with other hardwoods.  It is the southern-most New World birch.  Resistant to Bronze birch borer.

Gray Birch (Betula populifolia)

(also known as White Birch, Wire Birch)
Native to Vermont.  Small, bushy tree with open, conical crown of short slender branches reaching nearly to the ground.  Found in dry barren uplands and also moist soils in mixed woodlands.  Growing rapidly but short-lived, it is a pioneer in clearings, abandoned farms and burned areas.

Bignonia Family (Bignoniaceae)

Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)

Northernmost New World example of its tropical family.  Native to the Midwestern United States, widely naturalized in New England.  It is planted as a shade and ornamental tree.  Grows in moist soils in open areas.

Beech Family (Fagaceae)

Beech (Fagus)

American Beech (Fagus grandifolia)

Native to Vermont.  Large tree with rounded crown of many long, spreading and horizontal branches.  Producing edible beechnuts.  Found in moist rich soils of uplands and well-drained lowlands.

Oaks (Quercus)

Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra)

Native to Vermont. Large tree with rounded crown of stout, spreading branches.  Found in moist, loamy, sandy, rocky and clay soils; often in pure stands.  The northernmost, eastern oak.

White Oak (Quercus alba)

(also known as Stave Oak)
Native to Vermont.  The classic eastern oak, with widespreading branches and a rounded crown, the trunk irregularly divided into spreading, often horizontal, stout branches.  Found in moist, well-drained uplands and lowlands, often in pure stands.

Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)

(also known as Swamp Oak, Spanish Oak)
Native to Vermont.  Straight trunked tree with spreading to horizontal branchs, very slender “pin-like” twigs, and a broadly conical crown. Found in nearly pure stands on poorly drained wet sites, including clay soils on level uplands.  A popular lawn tree with a regular compact form and fine textured foliage.  Pin Oaks are hardy and easily transplanted because of the shallow, fibrous root system that lacks tap roots.

Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)

(also known as Blue Oak, Mossycup Oak)
Native to Vermont.   Generally uncommon in New England, but found in western counties of Vermont.  Stout trunk, large acorns, and broad, rounded open crown of large spreading branches.  Sometimes a shrub.  Grows in low rich bottomland, rarely on dry soil.


Legume Family (Leguminosae)

Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

(also known as Yellow Locust, Locust)
Naturalized in Vermont.  Large, spiny tree with forking, often crooked and angled trunk and irregular, open crown of upright branches.  Found in moist to dry sandy and rocky soils, especially in old fields and other open areas, and in woodlands.  Black Locust are widely planted for ornament and erosion control.

Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos)

(also known as Sweet Locust, Thorny Locust)
Naturalized in Vermont.  Large, spiny tree with open, flattened crown of spreading branches.  Found in moist soils of river flood plains in mixed forests; sometimes on dry upland limestone hills.  This hardy species is popular for shade, hedges and attracting wildlife.

Magnolia Family (Magnoliaceae)

Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)

(also known as Tulip Tree, Tulip-poplar)
Native to Vermont.  One of the tallest eastern hardwoods with a long straight trunk and a narrow crown that spreads with age.  Found in well-drained soils, especially valleys and slopes; often in pure stands.

Olive Family (Oleaceae)

Ashes (Fraxinus)

Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

(also known as Swamp Ash, Water Ash)
Native to Vermont.  Tree with dense, rounded or irregular crown of shiny green foliage.  Found in most alluvial soils along stream in floodplain forests.  The most widespread native ash.

White Ash (Fraxinus  americana)

Native to Vermont.  Large tree with straight trunk and dense, conical or rounded crown of foliage with whitish lower surfaces.  Found in moist soils of valleys and slopes, especially deep well-drained loams; in forests with many other hardwoods.

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

Serviceberries (Amelanchier)

Allegheny Serviceberry (Amelanchier laevis)

(also known as Shadbush, Juneberry)
Native to Vermont. Small, sometimes multi-trunked, trees that grow to 30 and 40 feet in height with star-shaped, white flowers.  Found in open hardwood stands or along the margins of open areas.

Willow Family (Salicaceae)

Willows (Salix)

Weeping Willow (Salix tristis)

Naturalized in Vermont.  A naturalized tree with a short trunk and broad, open, irregular crown of drooping branches.  Found in parks, gardens, homes, especially near water.  Native to China, it is one of the first willows to bear leaves in the spring and the last to shed them in the autumn.

Poplars (Populus)

Eastern Cottonwood  (Populus deltoides)

(also known as Carolina Popular, Southern Cottonwood)
Large tree with massive trunk often forked in stout branches and broad open crown of spreading and slightly drooping branches.  Found bordering streams and in wet soils in valleys; in pure stands or often with willows.  Pioneers on new sandbars and bare floodplains.

Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

(also known as Trembling Aspen, Golden Aspen)
Native to Vermont.  The most widely distributed tree in North America with a narrow, rounded crown of thin foliage.  Found in many soil types, especially sandy and gravelly slopes; often in oure stands and in an altitudinal zone below spruce-fir forest.

Linden Family (Tiliaceae)

American Basswood (Tilia americana)

(also known as )
Native to Vermont.

Elm Family (Ulmaceae)

American Elm (Ulmus americana)

(also known as White Elm, Soft Elm)
Native to Vermont. Large, graceful tree, often with enlarged buttresses at base usually forked into many spreading branches, drooping at ends, ofrming a very rounded, flat-topped or vase-like crown, often wider than high.  Found in moist soils, especially valleys and floodplains; in mixed hardwood forests.


All Photographs taken by Courtney Ley Photography, LLC.  Tree species descriptions obtained from the National Audubon Society Field Guide for Trees, Eastern Region, 2000, Forest Trees of Vermont, Trevor Evans, 2016 and Bark: A Field Guide to Trees of the Northeast, Michael Wojtech, 2011.

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